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Author Archives: Jessica Murray

Student Self Portrait Artworks created by LaGuardia Community College students in the workshop Seeing Each Other: Identity Self-Portraits

Professor Dahlia Elsayed and Professor Liena Vayzman
April 13 and 20, 2021

Kyana Neil

This is a representation of my activist side and my normal side. By bringing art and social justice together, I decided I wanted to remake a famous painting by Norman Rockwell. My head is served on a silver platter, hard to ignore, but I have very vibrant 60s/70s influenced makeup on. I’m surrounded by people laughing and talking, but all of the white people surrounding me have copied my makeup… and now the laughing seems to be more of a “haha we look just like her.” I tried to connect the “Culture Vulture” experience people of color always go through. Famous celebrities like Kim Kardashian and Gwen Stefani are infamously known as Culture Vultures… they wear people’s culture like it’s a costume. (From Asian, Native American, Black people, and much more!) And me a person of color, surrounded by white onlookers is having the first-hand experience of only being a “thing to eat, or to take from.”

Kyana Neil self portraitDaniel Herrera

I an Industrial Design major at LaGuardia Community College and a future Architecture major at City College of New York. I wanted to show a physical and creative representation of myself. To illustrate this idea, I divided the painting into two pieces. The left side shows my physical self-portrait and the right side represents the creativity coming from my mind. I painted a color explosion full of different paths and figures in contrast to the realistic representation of my face.

Daniel Herrera - self portrait

Giulia Armentano

The work is a reflection on the experience of grief. To create my portrait I went through photographs I recently shot and decided to combine two of them together in Photoshop.  Even though letting myself feel the pain is hurtful, it can also be comforting, an idea rendered by the image of the water carrying me.

I found the workshop interesting in how it showed the different ways in which artists think about themselves and their approaches to describing the aspects that make up their identities. This has given me more confidence in expressing something which, although it has been redefining my entire self, I am not comfortable sharing, even if just through my artwork. Hearing others describe their portraits was rewarding because I learned a lot about the creative process involved in the realization of works that are very diverse, although they were made by people who, at least partly, share the same educational path.

Giulia Armentano - self portrait

Scottie Norton 

I used a 3D rendering app called Blender to create an 8-second looping animation called Late Bloomer (and a still 2D image seen below), a figure representing myself with flowers cascading out of his head, and five hands surrounding the body.

As a non-traditional student, this artwork represents me pursuing my passion of becoming an artist and “blooming” or discovering my power through art after years of working as a retail manager. Each of the hands represents something different. I chose the image of the pencil in white and the black goblet to represent the positive force of creativity and the negative concept of vice. The black hand around my neck symbolizes self-doubt and self-destructive behaviors. Last year I was involved in an attack that broke the right side of my face, and this artwork symbolizes me overcoming this event and emerging with a newfound sense of purpose

Scottie Norton - self portrait

Teshaba Barlow

The work that I made was about working with the materials that I love and reflecting on why I choose to major in Fine Arts at LaGuardia. I painted myself and park-like scenery in the background, with a burst of cherry blossoms on the trees. The workshop helped me identify certain aspects about myself. Some of the words to describe myself in the workshop activity are: an artist, a woman of color, a naturalist, a palette knife, and Guyana, which is the country I come from. I started to sketch in charcoal. After, I painted. Working with thick layers of paint and a palette knife is always fun for me. 

My experience with hearing other people describe their work in the workshop discussion was altogether great. I enjoyed listening to everyone’s backstories, or struggles they faced with the project. I thought some were inspirational. And I found myself relating to them.

Teshaba Barlow - self portrait

Noelia Carrasco

I loved seeing everyone else’s work, which gave me a sense of what other kind of artists there are in the world and OUR SCHOOL!! 

[Self-portrait description: Drawing of the head and torso of a woman with long wavy brown hair, cat-eye makeup, and a nose ring. She is wearing a long-sleeved pink and green striped shirt under a black tank top, and an earring in the shape of a red heart. Two butterflies are flying above her and a halo of flames surrounds the butterflies and woman.]

Noelia Carrasco - self portrait

Kristen Chan

I am an Asian American artist from Hong Kong, currently studying photography at Laguardia Community College. I chose to base my self-portrait on five words that identify who I am, and repeat them over and over until they fill a silhouette of myself. The words “Asian American”, “Dreamer”, and “Immigrant” all refer to my identity as a Chinese immigrant growing up in America, while the words “Gamer” and “Artist” refer to hobbies important to me. The silhouette features a girl wearing floral hairpins. Such hair ornaments are typically matched with traditional Chinese hanfu clothing. The black silhouette was drawn using the software Procreate and text added on in Photoshop.  

Kristen Chan - self portrait

Lucas Neira

Art is about freedom and life. This portrait is about me and my dog. I painted the sky yellow because yellow means joy and happiness. The reason I’m happy is because the dog symbolizes a special key to achieve my smile. I always wanted a dog and now I finally have one. I named him Choco and he is a beautiful brown shih-poo. He is my 21st birthday gift and I am so happy for what I have.

Lucas Neira - self portrait

Liah Paterson

I loved the idea that self-portraiture does not have to be a literal image of one’s face – something that I had not previously thought about before this workshop. I sewed symbols onto an article of clothing. The symbols represent specific family lore and imagery present in my childhood.  It was difficult to challenge myself, to not only pick up embroidery after a five-year hiatus but to identify strategies to allow the imagery to maintain what I often try to capture with paint – an eerie familiarity, a questioning of what tales are behind this image.

[Self-portrait description: photograph of a black dress with embroidered words and symbols with close-up images of a duck, a tree, and house with flames coming out of the window]

Liah Paterson - self portrait

Zonghua Zhang

Hand-drawn with multi-colored pencils, I created a lizard man —  a scene with a joyful atmosphere to show a true me and my love of reptiles.  It was a fantastic experience to join the workshop. It brought me to a wider horizon level to understand what self-portrait is and can be shown from many different perspectives and it also can be expressed in different techniques.  I’m really happy to see other classmates’ artworks, full of unique creative ideas that inspired me. It was a good opportunity to share our ideas and learn some new styles of art from others.

Zonghua Zhang - self portrait

Tanesha Jenkins

The 5 words that came to mind to describe myself were creative, photographer, artist, magical, and extravagant. I like to embrace the concept of black hair with visually beautiful details like flowers, butterflies, plants, colors, etc., and make it over the top to place emphasis on its versatility and beauty. I used glitter and crystals as a nod to the “Black Girl Magic movement” which celebrates the beauty, power, and resilience of Black women. She’s holding a camera because I’m always taking pictures. 

I loved all of the examples and styles of what a self-portrait could be. I even researched some of the artists that I heard of for the first time in the workshop. I wish there was more time to see everyone’s work because it was fascinating seeing how other people portray and think of themselves. The creativity was great and now I actually want to play around with digital art. Great workshop!!!

Tanesha Jenkins - self portraitRongxin Xu

[Self-portrait description: digital painting of a woman wearing a hooded pink coat, holding a book with handwriting open with one hand, which is also carrying a bag of mandarin oranges]

Nour Mohsen    

I am studying Industrial Design at LaGuardia Community College. In my self-portrait, I decided to draw one of the pyramids, of Khafre (خفرع), in the background with the Egyptian flag above it, representing my culture. As all Egyptians, I love football, so I represent it in my self-portrait with a (Soccer) Ball symbol. I played video games from when I was 10 years old. I drew a gaming mouse in the bottom left of the portrait to represent how the gaming world took place in my life. I connected all those symbols with a drawing of myself looking back toward the things that represent myself both past and present. For the border, I used the ancient Egyptian language (Hieroglyphics). I used a pencil and a marker on a drawing pad.

NNour Mohsen - self portrait

JunHui (Erik) Chen

The five words I chose to describe myself in our workshop “Seeing Each Other: Identity Self-Portraits” are freedom, curiosity, loner, nervous and slow-to-warm-up. When I see these words, I think of cats. I consulted cats’ movements — like when they stretch their waist — and combined them with a human, plus some of my characteristics such as short hair and wearing a T-shirt.

JunHui (Erik) Chen - self portrait

Alvaro Chavarriago

My self-portrait is based on my own experiences, struggles, and battles to get ahead in this country as an immigrant. I chose to draw my hand because with it I can create a lot of things and help many people. My hand represents what I am and what I came to do not only in New York but as a Human Services student at LaGuardia Community College: Educate myself to help others.

Alvaro Chavarriago - self portrait

Leuvy Alvarez

I am a future teacher from LaGuardia Community College who loves art. I made a self-portrait using a photoGrid app. The photo I used in this picture was taken by one of my best friends as a model for her page, which is a small business clothing page, where I had to show my confidence. I’m using music notes as my arms. A raining cloud in my head includes a sad emoji, a flower, a sun, and a thankful emoji. The objects in the cloud represent insecurities, sadness, hope, and thankfulness. The rain represents growth: Flowers need rain to grow. Music makes me stand despite the war of emotions.

Leuvy Alvarez - self portait

 

 

 

 

Who Set The Fires? Interrogating the 1969 Student Protests at Brooklyn College (CUNY)—A Theater for Development Project

by Dale Byam, Ph.D., Department of Africana Studies, Brooklyn College

In 1968, 19 (later reduced to 17) Black and Latino Brooklyn College students were arrested in their homes on charges of arson and rioting at the college. The students were detained at Rikers Island for 4 days. Though the charges were later dismissed, the incident marked a turning point for the College

The decision to investigate this period sprung from a phone conversation with a community activist who, in the course of our discussion, reflected on her years at BC during the 1960s. She recalled the discrimination she had faced in some of her classes that led her to join student protests on campus. I began searching through newspaper archives confident that the event was something I wanted to look into further. Two articles stood out through words and imagery. The first, published on May 21, 1968, focused on BC’s then-acting President, George Peck. The article offered an interesting perspective of the acting President; his perception of the student protest as “a mindless approach to the problem,” his love of Milton and Donne, his academic background, his weight, his height, the color of his hair, his apartment in Brooklyn and his country home where he spent time sawing wood. The second article (NYT May 16, 1969) lead with the photo of a young student reading Plato while students of color marched by in a mock funeral procession. I learned nothing about the student protestors’ concerns through these articles. Why did the journalist choose to mention the President’s penchant for Milton or his second home in the country? How did the journalist know that the young woman was reading Plato? Did he ask her? If so, did he attempt to talk to the students who were in the procession? Who were those marchers? What did they love to read? Where did they spend their time?

Original caption: Mock Funeral: Students at Brooklyn Collee yesterday mourning “the death of justice,” referring to indictment and arrest of 17 students for arson and rioting. Girl in the foreground read Plato as the demonstrators passed by.

Fifty-three years later I had the opportunity to interview three BC Alumni members of the Brooklyn League of African American Collegiate(BLAC) organization and the Puerto Rican Alliance (PRA) who were arrested during the 1968 protests, namely Dr. Orlando Pile, Antonio Nieves, and Dr. Askia Davis. The interview ushered in the formal beginning of the Theater for Development project “Who Set The Fires?”

Theater for Development is inspired by the pedagogy of the late educator Paulo Freire. It is one aspect of a development strategy aimed at addressing specific community concerns through a collaboration between development agencies, artists, and other interested parties. At BC we set out to investigate student activism on the campus. As the work unfolded we gained insight into what seemed to have evaded the media of the sixties, the humanity of the protestors. We learned about the students who were active in the pursuit of fairer representation on the campus. Antonio Nieves eagerly shared over three hundred photos that documented the period of activism and sat for an interview with Temar France, a member of our team.“….Tony did such a brilliant job of documenting what happened at the time,” Temar observed. She continued, “The photos really do give you a window into what was happening and to just the simplicity of the fact that this was the work of artists and organizers and people who cared about each other people who are in community with each other. And that that was a threat to the government? That they were scary enough to be infiltrated? It just shows you the power that happens when you are a collective and when you work together and when it is something that’s centered around your education.” Along with interviews, students have added to the archives of the 60’s protests and devised an interactive video game focused on the anatomy of student activism.

The project will continue in Fall 2021.

A member of Black League of Academic achievement on Campus campaigning for representation on Student Government (1967) (photo courtesy Antonio Nieves)

Project Participants: Dale Byam, Amanda Enzo, Temar France, Assata Gonzalez, Anya Kopischke, Lanisha LeBlanc, Jean Michel Mutore, Naijah Whetstone

Dale Byam is a professor in the Department of Africana Studies at Brooklyn College. Her research focuses on the retentions of African performance in the African diaspora and Theater for Development initiatives in communities of the African Diaspora. Her research ranges from Culture and Development projects in southern Africa to the retention of African art forms in the West that includes Caribbean and Brazilian popular performances with special attention to the Maracatu of Northern/North Eastern Brazil.

2021 Health Communication Symposium Recap

by David H. Lee, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Communication, Department of Humanities, New York City College of Technology

There are large disparities in health outcomes for New Yorkers according to race, gender, income, education, ability, etc. CUNY students from low-income families and racialized groups are among the hardest hit by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and among the most impacted by furloughs, unemployment, and crowded living conditions.

The 2021 Health Communication Symposium at City Tech was a public forum on health disparities. The event took place online and included guests and speakers from around the world. There were over eighty people on the call.

Ann Delilkan, Chair of the Humanities Department, made opening remarks about a new Bachelor of Science degree in Health Communication being offered at City Tech. Welcoming remarks were also made by School of Arts and Sciences Dean, Justin Vazquez-Poritz, Associate Provost Reginald Blake, and Provost Pamela Brown. Gary L. Kreps, University Distinguished Professor of Communication and Director of the Center for Health and Risk Communication at George Mason University, noted the necessity of vaccination to obtain herd immunity.

The plenary address, from Dr. Lisa Grace-Leitch, Associate Professor and Deputy Chair of the Health Education Department at Borough of Manhattan Community College, was entitled “Examining Health Disparities in the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Care of Black Women with Autoimmune Disease.” The presentation illustrated the disproportionate incidence of autoimmune disease (such as multiple sclerosis, lupus, psoriasis, and others) among black women. Stress from food insecurity, income disparities, systemic racism, incarceration, etc. is implicated in the onset of more than eighty different autoimmune disorders.

After the plenary session, there were three half-hour parallel sessions in breakout rooms. In room one, Amanda Almond, Associate Professor of Psychology from the City Tech Department of Social Sciences, presented “Methods for Studying Race and Health.” In room two, Linda Bradley from the City Tech Department of Nursing brought together a panel of speakers from other departments, including Thalia Pericles (from Hospitality Management), and Nandi Prince (from the City Tech Library). Their panel, entitled “Interdisciplinary Reflections on COVID-19,” looked at the impact of COVID on their respective fields. In the third room, Dr. Dionne Bennett, from City Tech’s African American Studies Department, presented “Intersectionality, Intersubjectivity, and Representations of Gendered Racial Trauma.” Each room was well attended with about twenty-five participants.

The keynote speaker was Mohan J Dutta, Dean’s Chair Professor of Communication at Massey University (New Zealand) and Director of the Center for Culture-Centered Approach to Research and Evaluation (CARE). Dutta’s Google Scholar page lists 364 publications and over eleven thousand citations. He is the author of books such as Communicating Health: A Culture-centered Approach (2008) and Neoliberal Health Organizing: Communication, Meaning, and Politics (2015), among others.

Dutta’s presentation was a critique of business as usual in public health communication. He identified what he terms “neoliberal strategies,” which view health as mostly a result of individual choices rather than structural determinants. Dutta noted that the idea of “targeting” at-risk groups perpetuates an ideology of whiteness, and proposed, instead, “learning to learn from below,” citing Gayatri Spivak. As examples of culturally centered communication-based health interventions, he noted women agriculturalists in India “taking back the communicative apparatus” and creating their own media, plus other examples.

After the Symposium ended, I hung around for another hour talking with students. One of my students, Melky Saint-Surin, expressed hope that events such as this might help raise consciousness and focus energy on the problem of health disparities.

Thank you to Transformative Learning in the Humanities for sponsoring this event, and for their generous support for Health Communication majors. Special thanks to Christina Katopodis.

Continuity and Change: Reflections on “Women Rewrite America,” a Three-Part Reading and Discussion Series

by Ria Banerjee, Sarah Hoiland, and María Julia Rossi

As educators, we are typically impelled to produce content–course plans, public lectures, writing and speaking in various registers is central to what we routinely do. It is rarer for us to get opportunities to “fill the well,” so to speak, and a TLH grant provided us a forum to develop our understanding of contemporary fiction that is outside our disciplinary subfields but aligns with our interests. After discussion among a core group of five planning faculty (Julia, Ria, and Sarah are the names on record for this group of CUNY friends), we decided on some ideal parameters for our planned event: we wanted to read recent novels by women of color, intentionally working against the Anglophone publishing industry’s bias, and we chose works focused on the US with an eye on global interconnectivity. We wanted to attract participants from a range of work and professional experiences, as having only educators might narrow our conversation. Finally, we wanted to give space to student voices in designing and leading our discussions, again to foster a broad conversation that would not be possible at, say, a disciplinary conference. We settled on three particularly timely novels. 

In distinct ways, Yaa Gyasi’s Homegoing (2016), Valeria Luiselli’s Lost Children Archive (2019), and Kiley Reid’s Such a Fun Age (2019) speak to the stresses and challenges of US citizenship in transatlantic, continental, and transcultural terms. They are carefully crafted novels, widely recognized for their literary qualities. And, they are social novels as well as philosophical and historical ones. We agreed that it would be useful to read these novels carefully, as some of us intend to incorporate them into the courses we teach in future. But even more importantly, all three novels looked fun, intellectually and emotionally stimulating in a pandemic semester when most of our colleagues, students, and friends are working under very strained conditions. 

The primacy of storytelling in both Homegoing and Lost Children Archive weaves history into contemporary journeys of what it means for characters to return home and what even constitutes our ideas of “home”. Our third meeting will take place at the end of May, but the first two novels’ shared interest in historical contexts and their desire to archive public and personal recollections allowed our reading and discussion group to make connections across these very different texts. Both authored by young women of color, the novels pushed us to consider the authors as allies or fellow travelers with deeply personal connections of their own to the subjects raised in their writing: the transatlantic slave trade in Gyasi’s writing and the migrant crisis at the US southern border in Luiselli’s. 

In Homegoing, Gyasi materializes intergenerational trauma through two necklaces that are passed down from mother to daughter, one that remains in the family and another that is lost when a young woman is sold into slavery. In Lost Children Archive, Luiselli creates fictional archives that are literally and symbolically unpacked on a family’s cross-country journey to record the echoes of our past and to retrace migrant children who are lost. By tracking the development of narrative objects as symbols, and of shared textual tropes like motherhood and the inheritance of intergenerational trauma, our reading group has come to understand each work as a stop on a longer textual journey that we are taking together. 

In addition to one faculty leader for each session, Hostos and Kingsborough Community College alumna (subsequently at Hunter, Baruch, Brooklyn and the GC), have served as co-facilitators for each session. Isatou Batchilly, Denise Herrera, and Jozette Belmont have had deeply personal reactions to the novels, and offered complementary discussions of identity politics that restored a certain immediacy to our sessions. We did not intend to have purely academic discussions, and our co-discussants add their perspectives as political campaigners and social workers whose professional lives intersect with textual content. Through interactive icebreaker activities drawn from questions raised by the novels, the 40 participants in Women Rewrite America were asked to co-create a digital archive of our experience of reading together. These introductory activities proved to be effective for a large group of strangers coming from all over the US and a variety of academic and nonacademic roles, united only by an interest in the reading material. For faculty participants, this translates into an activity that can be easily adapted for the classroom. TLH made it possible for us to invite one of the authors, Valeria Luiselli, to attend a session, adding fresh depth to her personal and political involvement with issues that are important in our own intellectual and work lives. 

It is difficult to provide culminating thoughts on our experience because, well, the series ends at the end of this month. But aside from logistical reasons, coming to a quick summative response is contrary to our purpose when planning this 3-part, 3-month event. In the past few years, there have been several strong arguments put forward by philosophers, psychologists, and economists embracing slow thinking or “doing nothing.” Vincenzo Di Nicola compares Slow Thought to the Slow Food movement, arguing that slow thinking “is preservative rather than conservative,” and “founds a kind of contemporary commune” in which participants might respond to their own time and place while also “spreading organically as communities assert their particular needs for belonging and continuity against the onslaught of faceless government bureaucracy and multinational interests.” Writing more recently from the middle of the pandemic, Apoorva Tadepalli asks us to resist the urge to always be doing something. Do nothing, she urges; consider the pandemic “an opportunity not to ‘get your life back on track,’… but to experiment with nothingness, with a failure of productivity.” 

Breaking away from the relentlessly positive self-help rhetoric that saturates US popular media (and also perhaps US academia!), Tadepalli recommends that we “do nothing” except take time to try and find our own humanity, “tell and listen to stories.” This is no easy task in itself, as many who are working from home will attest. Still, both Di Nicola and Tadepalli speak to a tacit purpose behind our reading and discussion series to create time and space to just read and interact. What the fruits of such an exercise will be remains, happily, to be determined.   

Ria Banerjee is an Associate Professor of English at Guttman Community College. 

Sarah Hoiland is an Associate Professor of Sociology at Hostos Community College. 

María Julia Rossi is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Modern Languages at John Jay College.

From Page to Stage: Engaging with QCC Writers Live Event

by Raquel Corona and Susan Lago

On May 13, 2021, Raquel Corona and Susan Lago will host a live interactive literary event on Zoom, featuring Queensborough Community College English Department faculty, including Irvin Weathersby Jr. and Manny Martinez, along with three QCC students nominated to read by the English Department Creative Writing Committee. Attendees will actively participate by collaborating on a group poem, posing questions, and meeting with the writers for intimate break-out room sessions. The event will conclude with an open mic where attendees have the opportunity to volunteer to share their own creative work with the audience. In this way, attendees will have the experience of participating in a live literary event that invites the audience to engage directly with writers of various levels of experience to ask questions about their process or what inspires their creative work. Attendees will gather an understanding of the interactive nature between literature and audience in a venue that takes literature out of the classroom and places it in a collaborative virtual space.

 In May 2019, the Queensborough Community College English Department Creative Writing Committee held its first annual QCC Writers’ Showcase. Faculty writers from across the disciplines were invited to read from their published creative work, including poetry, fiction, memoir, drama, hybrid, cross-genre, or graphic novels. The purpose of the event was to provide an opportunity for writers to share their writing experiences with students and the QCC community. The event featured three faculty members and two students who were recommended by the Creative Writing Committee. The first hour was devoted to writers reading from their work and was followed by a 45-minute Q&A. Having students and faculty read together at a live literary performance was a unique way for the QCC community to engage directly with writers and helped to facilitate the understanding that writing is an active process of creative expression and communication that also happens outside of the classroom.

In May 2020, the live event was canceled due to COVID-19. Faculty and student readers, however, created videos of themselves reading their works, which were shared with the QCC campus community. Showcasing creative works virtually thus became a way to demonstrate the power of creative expression even in times of crisis. While faculty read from previously published works, students contributed spoken word and poetry having to do with the pandemic.

This year, we wanted to make the program more interactive on a virtual platform. When we heard about the Transformative Learning in the Humanities Grant, we came up with a proposal to utilize the functions of Zoom to create a unique collaborative, interactive space that celebrates spoken and written creative expression. We thought it would be wonderful if we could use the digital platform to give the audience that intimate experience with the writers so they could feel more comfortable engaging in conversation with them about their work. Our goal is to split the audience in two separate break-out rooms and then facilitate discussion within that space so the audience feels comfortable commenting on or asking any questions they may have of the writers.

We also wanted the audience to have the opportunity to engage in writing and perform as well. What better way to truly showcase creativity than to have the audience exercise their own? We plan to start the entire event with a poetry writing exercise where participants are given a prompt, and they reply in the chat feature of Zoom. We will compile what everyone puts in the chat and read it out loud at the end so they can see how we all came together to construct a poem virtually. Finally, we will invite attendees to perform their own poetry or creative work for a few minutes at the end. We have been working with our colleagues on the Creative Writing Committee to see if we can have a few of their students attend and perform in case participants are initially too shy. We hope being able to see one or two other people volunteer will provide others some courage to read their work.

Because our event has not yet occurred we cannot discuss in more detail or provide images of anything that happens at the event. However, we wanted to make sure to include in this blog post the line-up of the writers showcased in our event. They are truly a diverse set of individuals who we are so excited to bring together. Below you will find a photo and brief description of who they are and what they intend to read at the event.

Author Bios

Susan Lago is a Lecturer in the English Department at CUNY / Queensborough Community College. Her creative work has appeared, or is forthcoming, in publications such as Noctua Review, Adelaide Magazine, Pank Magazine, The Smart SetMonkeybicycle and Prime Number. She is currently at work on a collection of connected short stories. Visit her website at http://SusanLago.wix.com/susanlago or follow her on Twitter: @SusanLago).

Raquel Corona is a Lecturer in the English Department at Queensborough Community College (CUNY) and has just recently completed her Ph.D. in English from St. John’s University (yay for Class of 2021). Her dissertation is a rhetorical exploration of how transnationalism affects the circulation of stories about the Latinx woman’s body and sex. It examines various texts and the digital realm to consider the ways Latinx women are resisting against the dominant and oppressive forces in their lives to cull an alternative way of expressing and exploring their sexuality and sexual desire.

Strategies for Publishing Articles and Preparing your Future Book

Strategies for Publishing Articles and Preparing your Future Book was a workshop led by Prof. Araceli Tinajero (The City College of NY) on April 9, 2021, from 5:00 to 6:30 pm. The event was sponsored by Transformative Learning in the Humanities. Graduate students and an Assistant Professor were present. I had encouraged the participants to hand in a 150-word abstract (or summary) of the paper, dissertation, or collection that they would like to publish so they could share it with other audience members. No one brought their abstract/summary; however, when the attendees were in the breakout rooms, they carried out very interesting discussions.

The workshop was aimed to provide basic examples. Since I am a professor of literature, I furnished examples of how to begin publishing in the Humanities (I gave examples of journals at CUNY).  Below is the outline of what I presented. We had excellent discussions and promised to follow up via email to continue the dialogue.

Transforming papers into articles:

  1. If you don’t want your professor’s advice, find a professor outside your college and have her/him read your paper.
  2. If you are still not convinced, ask a friend you can trust.
  3. Don’t be afraid of criticism.
  4. Remember, you don’t have to change everything the reader asks you to change.
  5. You can combine 2 papers: one from one class with another from another class.

Preparing your abstract or summary:

  1. Be coherent and clear. Imagine that your reader doesn’t know anything about your topic. Even your theoretical framework has to be clear.

Publishing articles:

Stop! Before you send a paper to be considered, you must be familiar with the journal. Example: Ciberletras http://www.lehman.cuny.edu/ciberletras

  1. Your professors are the experts in their field. Ask them for a list of peer-reviewed journals.
  2. When an author submits an article, the editors of the peer-reviewed journal will contact two readers experts in the field. Each reader will evaluate your article. The editor will get back to you with suggested revisions or, if the readers reject your paper, you have to approach another journal.
  3. Not ready to publish in a peer-reviewed journal? There are several prestigious journals and magazines. Many are published by university departments:

Fiction – English department @  CCNY:

Fiction – Facebook

Promethean – Facebook

On-line Journals:

    • Cervantes– Official journal of the Cervantes Society of America
    • CiberLetras– Journal of literary criticism and culture
    • Dieciocho– Eighteenth-century studies in Spain and Latin America
    • Espéculo– Electronic journal of literary studies
    • Enclave– Journal dedicated to sharing the work of Spanish literary work from CUNY and New York.
    • Hispanista– Primera revista electrónica de los hispanistas de Brazil.
    • Laberinto– Spanish and Spanish-American texts from the early modern period, 1450-1750
    • Lemir– Journal dedicated to Spanish Medieval and Renaissance Literature
    • LLJournal– Journal of the Students of The Ph.D. Program in Hispanic & Luso-Brazilian Literatures and Languages, The Graduate Center
  1. Not ready to publish an article? Try writing a book review.

Publishing your dissertation:

  1. Think big & plan ahead. This book is a must
  2. You must focus. Don’t compromise with anything that is outside of the topic that you are writing.
  3. Again, ask your professors about the publishers.
  4. Study the publications, the editorial board, and their expectations.University presses = demanding and can be slow

    You can find a list of academic publishers here: https://humanitiesjournals.fandom.com/wiki/university_presses_/academic_publishers

  1. Study thoroughly the guidelines and submit them on time

Publishing a book outside your discipline:

  1. Look for the experts on your campus or approach professors from other institutions.
  2. For example, I want to write a biography…. do you know that there is a biography and memoir program at the graduate center? The experts are there. Ask them.
  3. Do you want to write children’s books? Get in touch with the English department and ask the chair if someone is teaching about children’s literature. Get in touch with the professor.

 

The Practice of Publishing: An Evening with Morgan Jerkins

by Emily Raboteau

This event was sponsored by a grant from Transformative Learning in the Humanities at the City University of New York and designed for emerging creative writers interested in learning more about the business of publication. It was conducted as a conversation between myself and author / editor Morgan Jerkins about her own path to publication, insight as an editor, use of social media as a networking tool, overview of the publishing landscape and tips on querying literary agents fo representation. The audience consisted of MFA students from CUNY and was open to the public.

I started the program by welcoming the audience: “Many of you are in MFA programs and have been working hard on your craft in writing workshop, honoring your ambition to be a published writer. Others of you have been working independently on your writing, with the same goal. But when do you know your work is ready to be published? How and where should you submit? Which are the right venues for your voice? Who are your potential readers? What is the best way to query an agent or an editor? How much can you expect to be paid for your creative writing? Why does understanding the publishing marketplace matter? You’re here to learn from the talented writer and editor, Morgan Jerkins in conversation me, writer and City College creative writing professor, Emily Raboteau, in a nuts and bolts conversation about the professional practice of writing.”

I then introduced our guest speaker: “Morgan Jerkins is a New York Times bestselling author and Senior Editor at ESPN’s “The Undefeated” for its Culture Vertical. Her books include This Will Be My Undoing: Living at the Intersection of Black, Female, and Feminist in (White) America, which was longlisted for PEN/Diamonstein-Spielvogel Award for the Art of the Essay and a Barnes & Noble Discover Pick, and Wandering In Strange Lands: A Daughter of the Great Migration Reclaims Her Roots. Her amazing third book, Caul Baby: A Novel comes out from Harper Books this spring. Morgan, one of the things I admire about your career is that you’ve worked in more than one genre, and also served so many writers as an editor, including myself, in your capacity as an editor at Zora Magazine. Walk us through your path from MFA to where you are now, including your influences as a writer.”

Morgan spoke for 25 minutes about her journey to publication, starting as an undergraduate student, including the ups and downs, the rejections, and her discovery of her voice and place as a culture maker starting in 2015 on social media, citing Roxane Gay as having opened the door for her, and finishing with a recap of her first national book tour.

I then asked her a series of questions, which I had gathered from the audience in advance. These centered around the pros and cons of self publishing, independent publishing, the role of an agent and the process of acquiring one, pointers for successful query letters, establishing voice, dealing with editorial conflicts, networking, publishing resources, and authorial “branding.”

Morgan insightfully answered these questions, sharing resources via the chat.


Emily Raboteau is the 2020-2021 Stuart Z. Katz Professor of Humanities and Arts at the City College of New York.

“The Power of Reading and Writing: How English Courses Paved Career Paths,” a TLH Alumni Talk event

This blog was written by Contributing Authors Ilse Schrynemakers and Beth Counihan, collaborating professors at Queensborough Community College.

An alumni talk, “The Power of Reading and Writing: How English Courses Paved Career Paths” was hosted by Drs. Ilse Schrynemakers and Beth Counihan (English department, Queensborough Community College).  Over 30 attendees listened to the stories of courage, determination, and success from the QCC alumni panelists. A general overview of the challenges faced by current undergraduates during this pandemic, and the need for connection with those “who have been in their shoes,” began the talk. This was followed by the host conveying various panelists’ anecdotes about life and work. These anecdotes—such as once working as an au pair in France–were a way to break the ice as well as underscore that not all career paths go in a straight line.  In fact, sources of inspiration are all around us.

The first panelist Jully Vanegas, who is now pursuing in a bachelor’s program (in Health Sciences) at Stony Brook, graduated during the pandemic. Jully emphasized the gradual steps towards her goals. Jully explained how each English course made her more empowered to tackle another academic challenge. As an adult learner, who is raising a family far from her native country, Jully credits success to seeking assistance, whether by talking with professors or using the tutoring services. Jully lost family members from COVID, and attendees were inspired by her courage, candor, and accomplishments.

The next panelist, Nadir Durrani, studying for his MA in English at Queen’s College, also works at Queensborough as a writing tutor for CUNY Start. He painted a picture of how his life has taken many turns and emphasized the power to reinvent ourselves with hard work and focus. Nadir coached students on “working smart” and encouraged them to seek out tutoring and other supports.

Our third panelist, Jessica Schuler, shared stories via video, since she started working as a bookkeeper on the same day as the talk. Like Jully, she credited the nurturing environment at QCC with making possible her present-day success. Jessica implored students to seek out campus opportunities, such as the QCC Fed Challenge Team, of which she was a part, while herself an evening student.

Our final alumni panelist, Christina E. Davis, spoke about the transformative powers of critical thinking, reading books, and sharing our ideas in writing. Christina is working towards a bachelor’s degree in Speech Therapy at Queens College, while being a full-time Mom. Christina’s staunch, enthusiastic devotion to her own education, and the possibilities available as a result, were important messages for our current students.

While the panelists shared their stories, attendees could read more about the alumni’s individual journeys:

Presentation slide: Meet Christina Davis along with some personal details. Presentation slide: Meet Jessica Schuler along with some personal details. Presentation slide: Meet Nadir Durrani along with some personal details. Presentation slide: Meet Jully Vanegas along with some personal details.

Lastly, QCC’s College Transfer Resource Center team, Renee Rhodd and Susan Madera (herself a Queensborough graduate) then shared the basics of the transfer process for current Queensborough students. The event concluded with their timely practical steps for realizing dreams, and the panelists all attested to their helpful guidance.

Even though we were all separated from each other, in our little Zoom tiles, the panelists lifted everyone’s pandemic-weary spirits.  Their persistence, resourcefulness and love of learning shine a bright light on the whole purpose of higher education: to develop the skills and tools to choose one’s life path, and as panelist Christina Davis said, to reveal the “true interconnections with humanity.”


Drs. Ilse Schrynemakers, an assistant professor, and Beth Counihan, an associate professor, both teach in the English department at Queensborough Community College.

Voicing Poverty Workshop and Information Session with TLH

by Jamie Warren and Mahatapa Palit

In this workshop, we began by inviting participants to turn their external scholarly gaze, at least for a moment, inward. Starting from the premise that, if our goal is to increase critical thought and knowledge among our students, we must first come to understand ourselves, we emphasized the necessity of engaging in the often discomforting analysis of our language, and our assumptions, our position, and perhaps most importantly what we mean we say words such as “I”, or “we.” What images of others do such utterances implicitly conjure for the mind? Who, exactly, inhabits the linguistic space, “You” or “them”? Moreover, how can this rather abstract process of self cataloging help us in our goal of bringing new knowledge on poverty to the center of our pedagogy?

Consider, the following three quotes, each produced in the mid-1980s, a period well remembered for it’s urban decay, Industrial fallout, and economic policies which sought to eliminate any remnants of the New Deal or the Great Society:

 “God is smiling on you, but he’s frowning too

Only God knows what you’ll go through.” Grandmaster Flash, “The Message,” 1982

“Born down in a dead man’s town, the first kick I took was when I hit the ground

You end up like a dog that’s been beat too much, spend half your life just covering up.”

Bruce Springsteen, “Born in the USA,” 1986

“Nobody was dreaming about me. Nobody was even studying me except as something to wipe out.” Audrey Lorde, in conversation with James Baldwin, 1984.

When I read these three artists along side one another, I am struck by an important difference in the words of Audre Lorde from those of the men. While all three artists are speaking directly on the suffering experienced by poor people in America, and two also point to the increased pain resulting from white supremacy, only one refrains from the using the word/idea “you.” In her articulation of the violence and symbolic erasure waged against the poor, importantly, Lorde used the word, “me.” Poverty is not elsewhere in her words. There is no universal, abstracted, and therefore meaningless “you” invoked so that we might perform a public display of our benevolence. There is no distance. Perhaps more importantly, when speaking to politics of knowledge and the dangerous epistemologies that undergird so much social policy on the poor, Audre Lorde offers no forgiveness. To study her is to destroy her. Thankfully, Lorde lived her life in careful diligence to own selfhood, self-naming, and protected above all else, her voice and her ability to say the word “I.”

As we each embark in the useful and important process of transforming our courses to increase our students understanding of the historical, structural, and political causes of poverty, it is crucial that we remember this lesson from Lorde. Put in very simple terms, when we teach on issues of poverty, we must find ways, both in method and in discourse, to resist placing the poor under the microscope, treating them as objects to be known. Given the fact that the vast majority of our students live daily through the very real pain and violence of being poor, we must teach them how to say “I”, to examine who constitutes their “we,” and to not think of themselves simply as things to be known, but as knowers. Only then can our classrooms become a place where those living in poverty can truly feel at home, and know on the deepest level, that our desire to eliminate poverty is not just different from, but actually at war with the desires Lorde named above—those which sought to wipe her out.

Summary of Jamie’s lecture & Mahatapa’s Assignment

My colleague, Jamie Warren, professor of history, presented at the workshop on Transformative Learning in the Humanities held at CUNY in March 2021, starting her lecture with this quote:” The act of doing history is fundamentally an act of empathy.” She used her own life story growing up white and poor to help destigmatize poverty and make the discussion of poverty and its roots natural and a way to interrogate the real problem of structural barriers. Through a close look at history, she discussed how she enabled her students understand how after slavery, during the reconstruction era, Blacks did well economically and in terms of social mobility, with progressive education, community activism, and learning about democracy. However, the Jim Crow era that followed led to great discrimination of Blacks and turned back the progress that had been achieved. Through the study of history, she questioned the myth that blacks were inherently low achievers because of legacies of slavery. Her goals for the TLH presentation were:

  1. To locate/understand students’ understanding of the causes of poverty.
  2. To explore how many of us unintentionally accept/reproduce biased and negative ideas about poor people.
  3. To help shift the focus toward structural barriers and the elite.
  4. To examine places in my own teaching/course design that unintentionally reproduced problematic myths about poverty.
  5. Relocate the position of the subject/knower.

As a business professor, my goal in attending Prof. Warren’s workshop on Voicing Poverty was to enable my students to look at business from a more humanistic perspective. My principal goal in teaching marketing is to help students understand the creative problem-solving process that underlies marketing practice. Typically, in my classes, I do not talk about poverty, nor the structural barriers that people in poverty face. My students like to apply the principles of marketing that they study in my class to solve consumer problems related to fitness, beauty, fashion, food, and the internet of things. However, is it not true that poverty is one of the biggest problems that society faces? Hasn’t the pandemic widened the gap between haves and have nots? Should we disregard it, and instead focus only on shiny objects? 

My students know poverty well. 67% of BMCC students received federal financial aid in 2109. 70% of community college students face a combination of food and housing insecurity. I wondered what their experience would be if they applied marketing principles to solve problems related to poverty in their own communities?

Inspired by Prof. Warren’s presentation, I decided to set two new goals for my marketing class. One, to build empathy in the classroom where poverty and life could be discussed in a more human way; and two, to encourage my students to look at creative ways to solve social problems emanating from poverty, yet being careful that we do not stigmatize these problems.

Goal 1: Building Empathy

While some people think of business as a way to make profit, I tend to take more of a view that business is a ‘force for the good of society’ that can help keep economies strong and citizens taken care of with resourcefulness and creativity. I would like my students as future business professionals learn to work collaboratively and with empathy. To set this new tone, I planned to start the class by taking two minutes on Zoom having students check in with each other responding to two questions: (1) What are we grateful for today? and, (2) What did not go well? Students would post their own response on the chat, and, also, respond to some of their fellow students. In addition to building empathy, I believe this would create a sense of belongingness and community in the classroom. 

Goal 2: Solving Social problems

My second adaptation would be for students to introspect on social problems they saw in their communities and choose to creatively problem-solve one that resonated most deeply with them.

I would like to set the stage by having my students look at the UN Sustainable Development Goals that focus on the world’s biggest problems and go over a few innovative solutions that organizations have developed to address these “wicked” problems. 

In this new semester-long project in my Introduction to Marketing class, students would:

  1. Discuss types of social problems related to poverty: Gun/Gang violence; Homelessness; Joblessness; Education-gap among new immigrants.
  2. Go on a community walk to observe problems that were manifest in their neighborhood. 
  3. Research the breadth and depth of the problem and explore databases such as Infoshare and local newspapers to understand the significance of the problem in their neighborhood. 
  4. Brainstorm potential solutions with their team. 
  5. Practice empathy as they learn the basics of design-thinking for solving social problems.
  6. Interview people wrestling with these problems in their neighborhood to understand their needs. 
  7. Build empathy maps based on the interviews and discuss what the interviewees said, felt, thought, and did. 
  8. Check whether the assumptions that they had ahead of the interview on the perceived roots of the problem were validated or if there were surprises.
  9. Unpack the insights that they received from the interviews and consider if this would require them to modify their initial solutions? 
  10. Watch, as a team, the documentary ‘The Line: Poverty in America’ by Linda Midgett (2014) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHyNBGIFYl8  and then discuss the structural issues that were at the root of the social problems that they were tackling.
  11. Create a social media campaign to advocate for change to solve the problem.
  12. Present their findings on the needs of their community and their plans for a social media campaign to their local community boards, taking on the role of citizen-researchers.

Even as I pilot the assignment in my class this semester, I have begun to notice a few positive outcomes. Sejlan (name changed), a student with accessibility needs came to speak to me at the start of this semester.  He was nervous. It was his first semester in college, and he was not sure if college was for him. He chose to work on a project focused on Homelessness. Sejilan had worked as a RA at a Homeless shelter and felt that the residents would be more likely to stay in the shelter if they had freedom to cook their own food, invite guests, have recreational facilities, and learn some trade such as culinary skills or graphic design that could help them get jobs. He went through the initial steps of his project meeting with me quite frequently and as he completed his interviews, I noticed a change in his voice. He was beginning to sound more confident as he discussed the pros and cons of his recommendations. As he finds his stride as a citizen-researcher with strong roots in his community, I hope that he will not only complete this class and get his associates degree, but that one day, perhaps, he will take on a managerial role in running a shelter.

From Being a Status Quo Educator to a Transforming Advocate: The Self-Reflection of an African-Born English Educator

This post was written by Contributing Author Professor Immaculée Harushimana (Lehman College), who recently organized a TLH-sponsored event, “Humanizing Teacher Education: Cultivating Cultural Diversity Empathy through Reciprocal Teaching.”

As a result of European occupation, formerly colonized nations have been introduced a colonial curriculum which, naturally, executes the Eurocentric education agenda. Throughout my educational system, I was never aware that I was being indoctrinated. I loved learning and I loved getting good grades because my parents believed that it was only through education that I was going to escape poverty and also pull them out of it. To some extent, they were right. Education opened to me the door to academic and economic success. Along with that advantage, however, it also transformed me into an instrument of the colonial agenda. In this brief article, I am offering a reflection on my transformational journey from being a blind status-quo English educator to a transforming, critical literacy advocate.

Majoring in English as a Foreign Language Implies Embracing the Status-Quo Curriculum

In ex-colonial nations, teaching takes place in an ex-colonial language, and the curriculum followed as well as teaching materials have been written by western authors who promoted western thinking. As an English teacher, I had no choice but to promote the language and the culture of England and the standards of the English language. Based in the African context, without any direct contact with native English-speaking societies, I was naively thinking that I was helping Burundian children to escape poverty. In the meantime, they were being taught to follow the standards of the English language, to read about and appreciate English authors and to write about them. Then, in 1993, I had the opportunity to travel to the United States of America to pursue graduate studies in the same field. That is when my eyes started to open slowly, and I noticed the depth of indoctrination I was being subject to. Not only was I learning a subject that was someone else’s, I was learning someone else’s culture and ideologies while, through imperfect A’s, I was constantly reminded that I could not produce native speaker quality of work. In other words, my work would always be “less than”. I would learn more about that concept during my doctoral program, when I was exposed to the literacy issues of minority children in US schools. During the Ph. D. journey, I was also introduced to different, competing rhetorical traditions, including the current-traditional, the expressivist, the social-constructivist, and the process-centered approaches (Berlin, 1982). All these theories seemed to be based on the assumption that all college entrants had had a similar educational experience. That is when I started to realize that something was wrong, but exactly what? I could not tell.

Experiencing Linguicism as an Eye Opener

After obtaining my Ph. D., i.e., in 1999, I was majorly hired part time to teach college composition at different institutions in high diversity areas of New York City. Later, when I had a tenure track position, I was assigned to teach a language and literacy course to in-service and pre-service teachers. I was excited by those positions, for I had been confidently thinking that I was qualified to teach English language and composition topics with assurance. Everything changed when I experienced rejection from the students who claimed that I was not qualified to teach them, and program coordinators who seemed to believe them and would not allow me to teach major courses that I had worked hard to master. I found myself always teaching the only one course that colleagues hated to teach and that my students hated to learn—language and literacies in secondary classrooms. For several years, I built the course around topics on academic language and literacy, digital literacies, and new literacies. Such was the teacher certification mandate from New York State Department of Education. Due to the repulsive attitude mainly of white students, I stayed away from critical pedagogy/critical literacy matters, even if had been exposed to Paulo Freire’s ideas of the pedagogy of the oppressed (1970) since I arrived in the United States, back in 1993. Ironically, encounters of linguicism, with good doses of racism and Afrophobia, invigorated my mission to ensure that my seemingly struggling students of color achieved the ability to understand academic texts and write essays in proper academic English. I was the typical puppet of the hegemony, for I could not call myself a hegemonic intellectual (Giroux, Freire & McLaren, 2011). Alas, my good intentions were not appreciated.

The Awareness

Based on my own experience with rejection and my own children’s ordeal to adapt to the secondary school (English) curriculum, I began to develop my scholarship in the area of African immigrant children’s school adaptation (Harushimana, 2013). As I was gathering the literature for my research, I found out about critical theorists, especially Jonathan Kozol and Ira Shor, and my awareness of minority children’s challenges with academic discourse increased. One thing led to another, and I decided to add to my course a section on critical pedagogies where I had the class read and respond to works that denounced the savage inequalities of the United States k-12 school system (Kozol, 2005; 2012). In the process, I found some room for my own work on African-immigrant children (Harushimana, 2013) as well as well works by other scholars who explored issues of unequal educational opportunities for African American children (Delpit, 1995) and other immigrant children (Ahmad & Szpara, 2003; Endo & Rong, 2011; Lukes, 2014).

The Transformation

At first, I was the leader of the discussions on the section on critical (race) pedagogies, but I very quickly realized that I was too passionate, biased and angry. My students, especially white teaching fellows, felt uncomfortable and complained that they had not come to learn about African American or African immigrant children. They wanted to learn how to teach Shakespeare and other canonical works of literature to the predominantly black and brown Bronx children. I felt a bit frustrated but not deterred. After a deep reflection, I came up with a new teaching strategy. Instead of me guiding the discussions, I decided to require that students give presentations on articles that I had curated on critical (race) pedagogies while I played the moderator-discussant role. To my greatest relief, the strategy resonated with many students, especially from among non-teaching fellows. I received very positive feedback and compliments for opening my students’ eyes to the challenges of being a minority child or an immigrant child of color in the United States School system. Through their career choice narratives, some students have showed empathy towards the miseducated minority and immigrant-descent children of color and vowed to be part of change. It gives me hope when I read a statement from a future teacher that reads,

I care about giving back to the people that welcomed me with open arms as a sad, lonely, rejected child, that I’ve seen treated unjustly time and again. [. . .] I plan to spend my life serving low-income communities and making education more equitable in the United States. (Orlin, written communication, 2021)

Finally, not all white, privileged teacher candidates view their teaching mission as being to save poor, underprivileged children from themselves.

Immaculée Harushimana is a 2018-2019 Fulbright Scholar (Mzuzu University, Mw) and Associate Professor of TESOL and English education at Lehman College, City University of New York. Her major area of inquiry is in critical linguistics and its implications for literacy instruction to adolescents in a globalized world. The underlying theme of her research is linguicism as reflected through African-born immigrants’ academic and professional integration; multilingual identities; and alternative discourses.  

REFERENCES

Ahmad, I., & Szpara, M. Y. (2003). Muslim children in urban America: The New York city schools experience. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 23(2), 295-301.

Berlin, J. A. (1982). Contemporary composition: The major pedagogical theories. College English, 44(8), 765-777.

Delpit, L. (1986). Skills and other dilemmas of a progressive black educator. Harvard Educational Review, 56(4), 379-386.

Endo, R., & Rong, X. L. (Eds.). (2011). Asian American education: Identities, racial Issues, and languages. IAP

Freire, P. (2018). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Bloomsbury publishing USA.

Giroux, H. A., Freire, P., & McLaren, P. (1988). Teachers as intellectuals: Toward a critical pedagogy of learning. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Harushimana, I. (2013). Foreign-born minorities and American schooling: The African- born adolescent’s plea. In I. Harushimana, C. Ikpeze, & S. Mthethwa-Sommers (Eds.), pp. 140-155. New York: Peter Lang

Kozol, J., 2005. The shame of the nation: The restoration of apartheid schooling in America. Crown.

Kozol, J., 2012. Savage inequalities: Children in America’s schools. Crown

Lukes, M. (2014). Pushouts, shutouts, and holdouts: Educational experiences of Latino immigrant young adults in New York City. Urban Education, 49(7), 806-834.